Scholars Kept Out

Foreign academics barred by the United States

July 2004: Tariq Ramadan, probably Europe's best-known Islamic intellectual, was hired by the University of Notre Dame for an endowed chair at the Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies. But with his household belongings already shipped to South Bend, Ind., U.S. authorities abruptly canceled his visa, preventing him from taking the job. A government spokesman invoked a provision of the USA Patriot Act, allowing the authorities to bar anyone who "endorses or espouses terrorist