• September 1, 2015

Overdue at the Library: Good Guides on How to Use It

More than 19,500 librarians of all stripes descended on the nation's capital over the weekend for the annual meeting of the American Library Association. They tolerated unseasonably fierce heat. They heard literary luminaries including Toni Morrison and Junot Diaz talk about the value of libraries and books. And they explored almost every aspect of what they do: cataloging and collection building, assessing e-books and encouraging elementary reading skills, preserving materials and serving patrons.

There was even a session on "Not So Extreme Makeovers," in which a personal stylist from Nordstrom and several big-city librarians promised to address "the negative stereotype of how library employees look and dress."

What university librarians would really like to make over is their own understanding of how students and researchers use library resources. From the academic-library perspective, one of the more interesting sessions was the annual Reference Research Forum, which presents "notable research projects in reference service areas such as user behavior, electronic service, and reference effectiveness."

This year's forum focused on three studies driven by academic libraries. First up was Ethnographic Research in Illinois Academic Libraries, or Erial. Led by Andrew Asher, a research anthropologist, the project sought to establish how undergraduates at five Illinois institutions actually use their campus libraries. The goal, according to Mr. Asher, was to "increase our understanding of the undergraduate research process" and then adjust library service to better accommodate it.

The study involved conducting "open-ended ethnographic interviews" with 41 librarians, 75 teaching faculty members, and 161 students at DePaul University, Illinois Wesleyan University, Northeastern Illinois University, the University of Illinois at Chicago, and the University of Illinois at Springfield. Some students were asked to keep research diaries and to draw "cognitive maps" on which they marked the places they visited over the course of an academic day.

According to Mr. Asher, the researchers found that small gaps in knowledge—e.g., how to tell from a catalog number where to look for an item in the library—created larger difficulties. He showed slides of a student trying to find a particular video in the stacks; it took her six steps (including asking library workers who didn't know the answer), 10 minutes, and three trips up and down the stairs to find the right spot. "Very few students will persist that long," Mr. Asher said.

"A minor gap in the student's information-literacy knowledge led to a major problem in finding the material," he added. "We saw this over and over again."

Information Gaps, Not Generation Gaps

In such cases, the solution can be as simple as installing better directional signs and making sure that student workers and library staff members who man service points are trained to answer basic questions like "Where is this?"

Sue Stroyan, one of the librarians at Illinois Wesleyan who participated in the study, said that it showed that many students have "limited knowledge of the process of academic research and the tools of scholarship." They misread citations and had trouble using the Library of Congress classification system to find items. And once they found something that worked, they tended to use it over and over again, even if it was not the best tool for the project they had in hand.

To help tackle those problems, Ms. Stroyan said, there is talk of setting up a "Web-scale searching tool" in the fall and doing more to emphasize information-literacy basics in library-instruction sessions. Faculty members tend to favor assignment-based library instruction, she said, but first students need to learn how to conduct a search, how to evaluate sources, and what constitutes ethical and legal use of material they find.

Steven J. Bell, associate university librarian at Temple University, also presented findings on a study he and colleagues did of LibGuides, which are subject- or course-specific guides designed to help students find relevant library resources. The research focused on one specific course in public speaking. The research was not entirely conclusive, but the larger goal, Mr. Bell said, was trying to figure out how to help students change their research behavior in useful ways.

The last presentation came from a team of librarians at the University of Wisconsin at Eau Claire, who surveyed a thousand librarians at an array of institutions to figure out whether some of the working assumptions about generational behavior in librarians hold true. For instance, are Generation Y librarians, raised with technology, more likely to agree with the idea that print collections are obsolete and should be dismantled? No, as it turns out.

Presenting the findings were Jill Markgraf and Eric Jennings of the Eau Claire campus, who said that, over all, the findings demonstrated that generational differences among librarians are not as drastic as people have thought and that Gen Y librarians tend to support "traditional library services and roles," such as staffing the reference desk.

The researchers also listed the qualities their respondents felt were most important for academic librarians to possess: interpersonal communication skills, adaptability/flexibility, knowledge of online sources, teaching skills, knowledge of print reference materials, and curiosity.


1. wmartin46 - June 29, 2010 at 04:12 pm

> In such cases, the solution can be as simple as installing
> better directional signs

This is so true. I sometimes use a large institutional library near my home that has, what seema to me, to be the most unhelpful directional signs. After wandering (or wondering) around the place for several days, I began to find all of the materials I was looking for, but it was a chore.

With RFID tags, and inexpensive personal electronics, it's easy to imagine being able to log into the WiFi network in the library with either a laptop, or a cell phone, access the catalog via the device, select materials, and then be directed to each of the locations where these materials are located (assuming that they are on the shelf). All of this could be done with more-or-less on-the-shelf hardware, and some yet-to-be-written software. Of course, this would require a sea-change in the attitudes of most libraries .. where: "what you see is what you get".

2. jacksonqvance - June 29, 2010 at 04:24 pm

Schools could be a little less chintzy with staffing and let there be enough people to go with a wandering patron.

3. blendedlibrarian - June 29, 2010 at 04:30 pm

Just to add a bit of elaboration, at Temple we did focus on one course, but much of the presentation discussed the use of a quasi-experimental research approach in which we divided students into control and experimental groups (8 sections a piece). The experimental group was exposed to the LibGuide while the control group was not, and we found there was no significant difference in the quality of an assignment that was analyzed using a rubric approach.

I discussed some of the challenges of doing quasi-experimental research and how that may have impacted on our findings. The session also explained how we used Blackboard's Outcomes Assessment Module to capture and assess the student artifacts (a 10-item annotated bibliography). While it appears that students are doing a better job of identifying and including appropriate databases for their research assignments, the determination of authoritative resources and the level of source evaluation lags greatly. One point I made is that LibGuides may be helping students with resource selection, but is there a way they can be used to help with resource evaluation - perhaps not. We also found a few interesting cases of outliers who appear to do very well and in future research we should try to examine those outliers more closely to understand why they are doing better work - and how to transfer what they do well to larger numbers of students.

Steven Bell

4. kar88692 - June 29, 2010 at 05:06 pm

Libraries were designed by librarians, for librarians. If librarians were scholars-true subject specialists (scholars), perhaps libraries might be easier to navigate.

Librarians are not the only problem. It is the duty of educators to teach the acquisition and evaluation of information. Why trust a group of individuals (librarians) who rarely, if at all, ever do any scholarly research, to teach those skills. It makes no sense to me.


5. philosophy - June 29, 2010 at 05:41 pm

My approach to libraries (and other things around a university, especially computer stuff) is to ask for help/advice at the slightest indication of puzzlement. The staffers are routinely polite and helpful, no matter how foolish my request is, no matter if I could have figured it out for myself with a bit more effort. They offer assistance - take full advantage of it!

6. nestor - June 29, 2010 at 05:44 pm


Bad libraries are designed for librarians. Good librarians are designed for their patrons. Academic librarians are scholars in their own field, library science. Many also hold advanced degress in other subjects. Academic llibrarians do scholarly research in their field and assist faculty and students in doing research in their own. They are also trained to teach information literacy skills to students. Your comment reflects your ignorance of libraries and librarians.

7. dmaratto - June 29, 2010 at 10:37 pm

"The study involved ... librarians, ... faculty members, and 161 students at DePaul University, Illinois Wesleyan University, Northeastern Illinois University, the University of Illinois at Chicago, and the University of Illinois at Springfield."

This is an ethnographic study about Illinois libraries, and they skipped U of I at Urbana-Champaign, one of the biggest academic libraries on earth? WTF?

"He showed slides of a student trying to find a particular video in the stacks; it took her six steps ... 10 minutes, and three trips up and down the stairs to find the right spot."

Then again, maybe U of I's library isn't so wonderful ... I've literally been lost for an hour in the stacks of the Main Library. A little longer and around another corner, and I might have stumbled across the skeleton of a student who went looking for a book in 1956 and never returned ...

8. mbelvadi - June 30, 2010 at 08:15 am

We live in a society where everyone jokes about not reading owner's manuals, where computer manufacturers have taken to sticking pamphlets with the word "READ ME FIRST" in about 800 point font at the very top of the product packaging in a futile attempt to get the user to actually read a couple of steps of instructions before using the device. Yet we librarians think they'll read our "how to" guides for the library if we just write them better -why? I applaud those researchers like the Illinois ones who are studying what students actually do. We need much more of that, so that the weight of the evidence can start to penetrate the shell of "ought" (as in, what students "ought to do" and "ought to know") that surrounds so many library staff.

9. facultydiva - June 30, 2010 at 08:39 am

There is an article in today's paper stating that elementary and high school libraries are being cut significantly. Public libraries are also facing budget crises. Get them young and teach them. Getting kids to read is so important, but teaching them how to research and use a library is just as important. If you wait too long, you've lost them. Our public officials are being short sighted - the long term effect of reduced library services will be significant.

10. bstevens - June 30, 2010 at 08:40 am

I was away from academic life during the time of transition from manual guides to electronic libraries and library tools. When I came back, it was like finding a new alien lifeform. But I found that the librarians are wonderful: they help just enough to lead me to the next step, and then help again whenever I need it. I'm actually learning how this works!

11. megano10 - June 30, 2010 at 10:09 am

mbelvadi, I agree--it's so important to find out how students are actually doing/attempting research, rather than focusing on what we think they're doing. As a librarian just a few years out of undergrad myself, it's hard to *pretend* I don't know all the great tricks I've been learning since then and remember how I used to research.

Better signage is soooo critical, too. It really makes a world of difference. As does adding a moment in instruction sessions to go over how to find a book in the stacks--students always seem so relieved to have that covered.

12. walkerst - June 30, 2010 at 11:14 am

At Brooklyn College, we have developed a tool like the one described in the first comment. If someone looks up a book, there's a small mapping icon that allows him/her to have the exact location of that book mapped in the stacks. It can be downloaded to a PDA, Blackberry, or other such device. It's extremely popular, and is used thousands of times each year. Does it solve all our problems? Of course not. But it is useful.

13. kcoburn - June 30, 2010 at 11:18 am

Sorry, but I agree with Karl. And this article is one of the many reasons why.

Come on! This is ethnographic research? This is nothing more than observation, the importance of which some university specialists are overemphasizing. This is the kind of work that thousands of people do in virtually every industry, every day. Think about hospitality and tourism, retail, the airline industry. They don't try and pass this type of work off as scholarly research. The quickness with which librarians equate amateurish and sometimes very passive observational studies with scholarly research is laughable.

14. bigtwin - June 30, 2010 at 11:44 am

Karl nails it on the head. I have worked as a researcher in a library and was shocked by the "expertise" that many specialty librarians adorn themselves with, even though they have no real experience or education in their field. It's as though adding a title and compiling a few bibliographies makes one an "expert" in a field.

Too many librarians tend to equate reference services with research services without knowing the difference. One is merely a way of ordering information; the other requires an specialized education and applied analytical skills.

15. msumlarry - June 30, 2010 at 11:55 am

Perhaps if more parents took their children more often to the public library (rather than depend upon it as a day-care center), then academic libraries would be seeing a more savvy (if not intelligent) clientele. The complete and utter cluelessness of entering students about the library is not a problem that the library has created.

16. bquigley - June 30, 2010 at 11:58 am

kcoburn - I'm surprised that you denigrate this ethnographic research as an example of librarians' "amateurish" approach to scholarly research when the lead on the project is an anthropologist with a PhD in sociocultural anthropology.

17. kcoburn - June 30, 2010 at 12:07 pm

bquigley - Please. Anybody in academia would sign on if it meant being published, or another feather in the tenure-track cap. This "scholarly" study is a joke.

18. kar88692 - June 30, 2010 at 01:17 pm

As for the statement, "your comment reflects your ignorance of libraries and librarians." I can't speak for all libraries, and all librarians. However, I have spent almost all of my professional life (30 years) as a librarian and have taught in a library school and in a music school. I have a doctorate in my subject expertise, music. My publication record is not insubstantial. However, it has been my experience that my training, background and publication record are rare amongst librarians.

I would further suggest you review the curriculum at any library school and check the job postings for librarian jobs. Subject expertise is rarely required, nor are libraries expected to research and publish. There are exceptions, but not that many.

Are you aware that the cataloging methodology currently in use (MARC) was designed almost 50 years ago and hasn't been changed significantly? When was the last time you had to use delimiters? Catalogers do every day. Do you know that catalogers still spend time inputting information required for the preparation of cards for card catalog?

I believe that much of the success of google et al is due to the lack of innovation in libraries. There were some who saw this coming. I would suggest reading James Thompson's "End of Libraries," published in 1982.

And as for the comment, "Perhaps if more parents took their children more often to the public library (rather than depend upon it as a day-care center), then academic libraries would be seeing a more savvy (if not intelligent) clientele. The complete and utter cluelessness of entering students about the library is not a problem that the library has created." I can only assume that you are unaware of the current marketing trends in public libraries. They are indeed offering forms of day-care, restaurants, movie theaters, et al.

Please do not misunderstand me, as I do not think libraries will disappear. However, I believe that their role has changed significantly and that they are losing, deservedly so, the relevance they once had.


19. scimedlib - June 30, 2010 at 01:54 pm

Karl, for sure, libraries do have their problems. But, I'm not sure why you find this man's ethnographical research to be suspect? Ethnography can be field observations and interviews. The article does not comment on his methods of evaluation, but I'm not seeing what the problem with his research is.

As for yourself, you certainly did not do the librarian profession a favor by not publishing much during your career. There are library systems that do emphasize research, for better or worse. And maybe other libraries should take note. As for me, my research (and I am a librarian) is as valid as any other social scientist as long as it is conducted using appropriate, valid methods.

And I ask, what have you done to influence the role of the future library? Have you merely whined about their decline and lack of scientific rigor? How are libraries to be innovative when they barely have the funds or human resources to keep their doors open? One could liken it to poverty: it's difficult to think about going to college when you're poor. You're just worried about your next meal.

20. subcrea - June 30, 2010 at 03:09 pm

kcoburn calls the study a joke. I took a look at the project website and presentation slides to judge for myself. I don't think the study is a joke, but I don't consider it to be scholarly research.

I applaud efforts to learn more about patrons needs. The study as presented in the slides seems reasonable as an observational user study aimed at uncovering usability issues, much as one might do in running a usability test on a website. I think it's a fine, though not extraordinary, exemplar of that genre, and is useful for librarians.

For me to consider a study of this nature to be scholarly, I'd have to see what knowledge it is building on and adding to, and I'd have to see evidence of interpretive thought, telling me, for instance, how patrons thought about research papers, their conceptions of libraries as place, how they characterize librarians as people, etc.

Ethnographic research aspires to understand in terms of the other rather than just debug the other's experience with the unquestioned "what is." And I missed the reflexivity. However, it could be that the project has collected good data and the interpretative writeup will emerge later.

Studies may be useful without being "scholarly". The scholarly research gripe came up in the comments, not in the article anyhow.

21. nestor - June 30, 2010 at 07:29 pm

"Do you know that catalogers still spend time inputting information required for the preparation of cards for card catalog?"

Then those catalogers are working in a bad library that needs to update what they are doing.

22. mbelvadi - July 01, 2010 at 07:56 am

Karl, MARC is a data encoding standard, not a cataloguing standard per se. The underlying cataloguing standard is known as AACR2, and you're right that it contains rules intended to make sense for printed cards. But it is being revised right now, or haven't you heard of RDA? And many librarians have worked on various new ways to replace MARC itself, mostly using XML schemas, like qualified Dublin Core. It's unfair to portray the entire profession as not having moved an inch in 50 years.
Also, to clarify for nestor et al., "cataloguers" (professional librarians) normally don't have to spend any significant amount of time worrying about the AACR2 rules that relate to printed cards - that's what cataloguing assistants are for. I could imagine a few librarians (and Karl may well be one as a music librarian) who are in "one man shops" (very small special or specific-subject libraries) having to do everything for themselves without the help of any assistants.

As to the whole "scholarly" thing, some of the non-librarian faculty reading this need to understand that at many institutions, librarians have faculty status, and find themselves in a gray area with regard to what kind of "scholarship" is expected of them for tenure/promotion. Also, the vast majority of academic librarians were humanities undergrad or even master's majors (history and literature, mostly), so their understanding of what scholarship is tends to come more from those traditions. I think it's great that the Illinois librarians have collaborated with a soc/anth prof who can bring expertise in that discipline's accepted research methodology to the process.

Some of the criticism I'm reading seems like the usual disrespect that quantitative researchers have for qualitative research methods generally, not specific to librarianship research methods. That's a whole 'nother debate.

23. abane - July 01, 2010 at 09:30 am

Of possible interest for our fall focus group discussions and for the role of information literacy in improving the research success of students.

24. goodeyes - July 01, 2010 at 09:41 am

Three futures - GPS from cell phone helps you find exactly where you want to be in the library, tag in books/videos takes you right to what you want using a device given to the student, or everything is on-line and thus nothing to search for.

25. zenbrarian - July 01, 2010 at 12:17 pm

As the Procject Coordinator for ERIAL, I am pleased to see so much interest and discsussion on our project. There is additional information I can add that might answer a few of the questions raised in previous posts.

At this point in the project, except for a few general observations, most of the conclusions of the study have not been published or presented. We are still analyzing data. The reults and conclusions will be coming out in a book next spring published by ALA Editions. What was presented at the ALA conference, as described in this article, was simply an illustration of information that was gleaned from a single research process interview at one of the ERIAL universities. There are over 700 more such research data points collected over 2 years. Here, we are talking about just one.

More than 80% of the research interviews were conducted by experienced ethnographers (the other 20% were done by librarians who had been trained by the ethnographers).

Dr. Asher, our lead research anthropologist, holds a Ph.D. in Anthropology from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. He has done ethnographic research in Poland and Germany. He has taught at the University of Illinois and won national fellowships and awards for his work, including a Fulbright-Hays Research Fellowship.

Susan Miller, our resident anthropologist for the three ERIAL libraries in Chicago, completed her M.A. at the university of Chicago and has conducted ethnography on organizational structures at homeless shelters. She also worked at a consulting firm in Boston doing ethnographic studies on mental health and substance abuse services.

Our project consultant is Dr. Nancy Foster, Director of Anthropological Research for the University of Rochester's River Campus Libraries. Dr. Foster has extensive experience doing ethnography in the Amazon, Papua New Guinea, the U.K. and the U.S. and has done ethnogrpahic research for private corporations. She holds a Diploma in Social Anthropology from the University of Oxford and a Ph.D. in Applied Anthropology from Columbia University.

In addition, there are Ph.D. holding social scientists on the library research teams at several of the ERIAL libraries (they happen to also be librarians) who have experience in ethnographic research, some quite extensive.

So, I think the quality of the research is in good hands for the intended purpose of this grant.

The grant was awarded for the purpose of gathering data which would be used to improve the quality of the libraries at the five institutions, as well as to provide information and tools that could be used by other academic libraries. The five institutions chosen to participate in this project represent the great diversity found in academic libraries and their communities. By identifying the results which are consistent between these institutions, we can make reasonable assumptions about what may be true at most academic libraries in general. We are also trying to discover what is unique to each institution's environment.

A few of the ERIAL librarians may be publishing in the coming months some of the results they have found. However, most the research findings and conclusions will be presented for the first time in the forthcoming book.



26. kcoburn - July 01, 2010 at 04:47 pm

Dave, thank you for the thorough elaboration of the credentials of those involved in the study. They are truly an accomplished bunch, and I am amazed by their collective education levels and varied experience.

My question, then, is this: why on Earth are such talented, qualified scholars participating in this type of research, the results of which are nothing more than pure common sense, and things that should be obvious to those who work to provide organization to a library? I am shocked at the lack of sophistication with which librarians carry out "research" at academic libraries every day.

I am not going to list my academic credentials or mention how many years I've been working in the often complicated, but always rewarding field of research. I'm not going to do this because it doesn't matter. Anybody would be able to discern that this project is little more than tinkering and playing, regardless of how many hours per week they spend researching.

Consider this. While I was in college, I worked for a pretty famous retailer which exercised a good deal of freedom in the planning and arranging of their own storefront. Once, a staff member discovered that a certain item we were selling just wasn't moving--nobody was buying them. Our manager decided to pick up the display table and move it to the center of a room, adhere a sign to it, and drape something over a nearby mannequin. Is this research? Maybe so, but is it worthy of a journal article or conference?

Consider another example. I go to a restaurant and order a strawberry milkshake. The waitress brings me a strawberry milkshake. Is she a genius for simply bringing me what I asked for? What would you think of her if she brought me a chocolate sundae instead? She would clearly be considered incompetent. Because she succeeded, should we put her on a pedestal or reward her with some advanced degree?

Somewhere along the lines, the library "industry" convinced academia that librarianship should require a master's degree, and that librarians themselves should be considered faculty at many universities. Somehow, they convinced the world that they are, in fact, significantly more valuable than just reference desk helpers. I agree that some are. But I have yet to witness for myself anything that would cause me to apply this to the general population.

Dave, I appreciate your willingness to defend this study. I'm sure those involved are qualified, perhaps overqualified. I still cannot grasp why this common-sense, bunk-filled study deserves a second glance by anyone in higher education.

27. rosmerta - July 02, 2010 at 03:05 pm

As I see it, these are the primary challenges facing academic libraries:

1) Students who enter college with little to no knowledge of what a library is or how to use it - a deficit that should have been addressed well before high school graduation;

2) Faculty who don't understand the importance of partnering with the library to ensure their students learn the research skills they need - and who sometimes take their students' research skills for granted, with little justification;

3) Accrediting bodies such as MSCHE that have progressively put less emphasis on the library and the work of librarians; and

4) Lack of innovation from the library world itself. I must agree somewhat with Karl here. The standout example is the "simple" search technology of Google, which has blown the careful, minutely detailed, AACR2-built library catalog out of the water. Why hasn't some intersection of library catalogers and systems people developed something for libraries that would work like this? RDA may finally be in development, but Google has been around for years, along with many other search engines.

I don't speak as someone who has the answers - I must admit that I myself, as an academic librarian, am not doing all that much to remedy any of these problems - but I think it's true that librarians could be doing more to meet the future, instead of always following (often years behind) the more innovative worlds of business and technology.

28. prof_truthteller - July 04, 2010 at 04:13 pm

@2kcoburn - Puh-leeze! almost every advancement of human knowledge in just about any field your can think of, has been forwarded through the study of what seemed obvious and common sense to everyone at the time. Due to scientific inquiry of the "obvious," we now know the earth is not flat, time does not fly like an arrow, and disease is not caused by evil spirits or vapors. The anecdotal example from retail that you cite can hardly be accepted as proof of anything useful. You express arrogant assumptions about something you really don't know anything about- and condescend and insult those who do. You are not contributing anything of value to this conversation.

29. bjgeorge - July 04, 2010 at 10:15 pm

A study that sheds light on how a library is used is useful. Also, this is from an anthropological perspective which is of interest.

I work within a public library setting. A year ago the library migrated to a new automated system, including a new online catalog. Workshops were held on how to use the new online catalog with little attendance (the workshop was in the newspaper and on the radio). However, when people are actually using the online catalog, then they have questions that they will ask-or unfortunately may not ask.

Also, I have found in circulating on the library floor asking whether I can assist people using the online catalog, etc. and I have found many people say "yes." So, it may be a matter of working with people in the act of performing research. Expecting people to be fully prepared for research when they enter the library does not apply to all (far from it) and realistically people learn by doing things. And to that end the study is making a contribution.

30. catic15 - July 06, 2010 at 09:51 pm

"Faculty members tend to favor assignment-based library instruction, she said, but first students need to learn how to conduct a search, how to evaluate sources, and what constitutes ethical and legal use of material they find." Hmmm. This sounds very similar to the definition of "information competency" adopted by the Academic Senate for California Community Colleges back in 2001 (see http://www.topsy.org/resolution.html).

In my experience, subject-area expertise helps in building excellent collections of information at the higher levels of research. It doesn't necessarily help librarians - or other faculty - develop user-friendly organizational methods for that information, nor does it help librarians communicate the critical thinking skills needed to locate and evaluate those resources.

As a faculty librarian in a California community college, I teach a credit course on Information Competency to packed classrooms of students. The quote at the beginning of this post could also have been lifted verbatim from the course objectives for the class. It's a graduation requirement for our students. And while there are always some students who wait till right before graduation to complete the course, the word has gotten out among the students that this is a course that really helps them with everything else they do and they're signing up earlier and earlier in their course of studies. We have waitlists of 30 or more students per section to get into these classes, and excellent reviews on the anonymous surveys they complete at the end of the course.

31. kcoburn - July 07, 2010 at 04:51 pm

@prof_truthteller - My anecdotal retail example was not intended as proof of anything useful. On the contrary, I used it to support my claim that academic librarians, from my experience, do little more than what those with lesser jobs do all around us every day. I'm sorry if you didn't understand that.

Just because you disagree with me does not mean that I am not contributing anything of value to this conversation. It does, however, mean that you, too, have been duped by the league of librarians who are out to prove to society that their work and studies are ground-breaking, earth-shattering academically valuable undertakings, when in fact they are little more than drivel and common sense.

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