Some college Web pages treat blind students who rely on text-to-speech readers better than others. Jon Gunderson, coordinator of assistive communication and information-technology accessibility at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, has reviewed Web pages at 183 institutions. He selected the colleges mostly from 15 major athletic conferences, since those institutions are similar in size and mission. He also surveyed all institutions in California's two university systems, and those in one Colorado university system, because of their large enrollments. He reviewed university home pages, main pages from the admissions offices and colleges of liberal arts, as well as all other pages with links on those primary sites. The percentages in each column indicate the proportion of pages that met Mr. Gunderson's accessibility criteria.

Institution Rank Total Average
Score
1
Web Site Name2 Additional Headings3 Online Applications4 Information Tables5 Pictures6 Web site Design7
Missouri State U. 1 91.8 97.6 79.3 92.2 50 90.4 99.2
California State U. at Northridge 2 87.2 83.9 75.5 91.2 58.3 93.2 98.9
Calif. Polytechnic State U. at San Luis Obispo 3 82.6 61.1 92.9 97.5 60 97.6 96.4
U. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 4 82.2 92.8 90.8 77 50 48 98
Indiana U. at Bloomington
5 81.2 91 88.1 49.5 62.5 69.3 100
California State U.-Channel Islands 6 80.7 51.7 96.5 98.2 50 100 96.5
Oregon Institute of Technology 7 79.3 81.8 85.8 77.5 43.7 57.5 96.9
Nevada State College 8 78.1 68.4 45.6 97.7 n/a 93.4 95.6
U. of Evansville 9 77.6 92.5 90.8 0 50 86.2 97.7
California State U. at Chico 10 77.3 70 75.8 70.5 62.5 96.4 81.2
Michigan State U. 11 76.9 53.5 81.9 92.5 29.1 92.3 95.1
U. of Tulsa 12 76.5 96.4 1.7 0 0 99.4 98.8
College of the Holy Cross 13 76.2 88.6 69.9 20 12.5 47.9 92.6
U. of Minnesota-Twin Cities 14 75 76.1 94.3 24.7 50 91.6 93.1
U. of Illinois at Chicago 15 74.8 66.1 72.5 95.4 16.6 80.3 92.1
Loyola U. Chicago 16 73.6 92.8 80.9 0 6.2 84.2 97.1
California State U.-East Bay 17 73.4 47.5 77 90 63.8 90 92
U. of Texas at Austin 18 72.3 56.3 66.9 88.4 41 96 77.8
Southern Illinois U. at Carbondale 19 72.3 56.5 82.6 82.2 43.7 90.2 73.9
U. of California at San Francisco 20 71.7 70.5 80 71 52.2 54.1 94.1
U. of Kansas 21 71.6 69 45.8 79.3 16.6 74.4 97
Pennsylvania State U. at University Park 22 71.4 50.6 70.7 84.6 75 79.3 94.2
Duke U. 23 71 80.4 45.6 50 n/a 76 93.4
U. of Houston 24 70.7 71.4 84.4 1.5 50 87.3 96.9
Texas Tech U. 25 70.3 65.2 44.5 80.8 50 79.6 88.2
California State U. at Fresno 26 70.1 58 75 6.2 75 85.1 92.8
California State U. at San Bernardino 27 70 53.8 57.1 81 64.2 94.5 87.9
San Francisco State U. 28 69.8 52.4 68.3 69.3 59.3 86.1 93.9
U. of California at Riverside 29 69.7 75.8 5.9 86.7 37.5 83 98.3
Cornell U. 30 69.5 62.6 53.3 58.7 25 95.1 94.2
U. of Oregon 31 69.1 72.5 55.8 80.9 25 50.8 95
Humboldt State U. 32 68.9 63.5 64.8 31.5 56.8 94.2 97.2
U. of Colorado at Denver 33 68.9 52 60.2 91.7 69.4 83.5 73.9
California State U.-Dominguez Hills 34 68.6 48 73.2 5.2 75 94.6 86.2
Arizona State U. 35 68.2 57.4 46.5 89.3 0 68 95
California Polytechnic U. at Pomona 36 68.2 44.7 72.2 91.7 50 67.4 93.3
U. of California at Berkeley 37 67.8 73.1 53.6 22.1 82.2 90.4 81.5
U. of Utah 38 67.7 38 57.1 5.2 98.3 76.2 87.7
Western Oregon U. 39 67.7 62 88 0 n/a 92 100
U. of Michigan 40 67.5 57.6 59.5 67.6 25 71.5 92.8
U. of Nebraska at Lincoln 41 67.4 49 53.4 44.9 81.6 95.5 94.9
St. Louis U. 42 67.1 81.9 83.8 0.6 50 64.5 90
U. of Detroit Mercy 43 67 65.7 94.2 1.9 50 78 96.1
Brown U. 44 67 70.5 86.8 3 45.8 67.7 95.9
U. of Nevada at Reno 45 67 61.7 80 6 50 94.1 98.8
Oregon State U. 46 66.7 82.1 61 8.1 40 73.6 93.6
San Jose State U. 47 66.7 39.4 66.6 92.7 20 92.7 87.7
Illinois State U. 48 65.9 65.7 82.8 0 50 77.5 97.8
Adams State College 49 65.6 59 78.7 6 n/a 93.9 96.9
U. of Montana 50 64.6 63.3 72.5 52.3 54.1 77 0
Virginia Tech 51 64.5 62.4 62.1 20 41.6 90.6 93.1
U. of Dayton 52 64.5 80 10.7 0 50 92.3 92.3
Dartmouth College 53 63.7 70 72.4 0.6 41.9 90.8 87.4
U. of California at Davis 54 63.7 48.8 56.2 75.4 33.3 80 82.9
St. Joseph's U. 55 63.6 63.5 76 91.9 23.3 5.8 93.6
California State U. at Long Beach 56 63.4 39.1 43.4 95 52.2 68 98.3
Texas A&M U. 57 62.9 73.6 45.3 78.3 50 18.6 96.2
Colorado State U. at Pueblo 58 62.6 98.9 33.3 n/a 25 80.6 3.2
Duquesne U. 59 62.5 73.4 46 2.2 0 90.9 88.2
U. of Arizona 60 62.5 86.9 15.9 92.4 50 12.6 98.1
Sonoma State U. 61 62.5 61.3 64.1 75 46.8 86.7 47.1
Oregon Health and Science U. 62 62.5 77.3 0 42.8 57.1 88 92.8
U. of Central Florida 63 62.1 59 65.3 33 12.5 68.5 90.5
U. of Missouri 64 61.9 66.5 59.6 46.2 44.2 69.7 79.8
Creighton U. 65 61.9 72.2 8.3 32.3 n/a 94.2 91.6
U. of Notre Dame 66 61.8 63.3 38.3 30 0 86.7 87.2
Northern Arizona U. 67 61.6 82.3 72.5 0 n/a 68.6 0
U. of New Mexico 68 61.2 55.3 61.4 44.6 56.2 69.6 81.1
U. of California at Los Angeles 69 61.2 84.6 85.8 6.3 50 92.6 23.1
Colorado State U. at Fort Collins 70 60.4 61.1 20 41.1 67.9 78.4 92.3
U. of Iowa 71 60.2 53.7 55 45 n/a 78.7 73.7
North Carolina State U. 72 60.1 66.6 53.3 19.5 75 79.7 71.1
Mesa State College 73 59.5 51.7 60.7 0 25 96.4 100
Florida State U. 74 59.2 60 63.3 2.5 33.3 88.3 82.3
Iowa State U. 75 58.1 58.3 20.4 35.2 25 94.8 86.8
Boston College 76 57.9 66.4 61.3 0 42.8 61.3 92.8
U. of Wisconsin at Milwaukee 77 57.9 48.4 86 0 34.7 83.9 93
San Diego State U. 78 57.8 40.4 49.3 61.1 10.7 94.5 80.8
California State U. at Los Angeles 79 57.4 45 44.1 24.1 37.5 82.8 83.3
U. of Maryland at College Park 80 57.3 59.7 55.5 3.3 50 77 84.5
U. of Pittsburgh 81 57.2 54.7 52.7 23 n/a 52.9 77
U. of California at San Diego 82 57.2 56 46.1 42.2 50 56.5 86.2
Portland State U. 83 56.9 86.2 87.7 0 19.5 85.1 0
U. of Rhode Island 84 56.4 46.1 13.8 81.2 n/a 61.1 90.2
U. of Miami 85 56.3 65.2 49.5 2 25 74.2 83.5
U. of Nevada at Las Vegas 86 56.2 60.1 39.3 1 50 84.8 91.9
St. Bonaventure U. 87 56.1 57.6 88.4 0 n/a 56 76.9
Lehigh U. 88 55.1 75.4 71.1 0 n/a 50 58.6
U. of Oklahoma 89 54.8 45.1 61.1 3 50 85 89.3
Columbia U. 90 54.7 69.1 66.9 11.8 0 21.9 84.8
U. of Northern Colorado 91 54.1 54.3 69.8 1.1 25 81.8 0
Rutgers U. 92 53.9 76.2 84.3 0 37.5 0.6 86.8
California State U. at Bakersfield 93 53.6 30 14.2 87.8 0 90 87.1
California State U. at Sacramento 94 53.5 35.2 59 95.1 42.5 66.6 0
U. of Louisville 95 53.2 22.9 12 95.1 50 97.5 69.6
U. of Wisconsin at Madison 96 53.1 37.9 41.8 36.1 20 75.1 91.4
California State U.-Monterey Bay 97 53.1 44.9 42.3 89.7 50 88.1 3.3
Xavier U. 98 53 54.5 43.5 0 0 44.2 98.4
U. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 99 52.8 50.4 25.2 61.9 37.5 54.8 79.4
Drake U. 100 52.6 60.1 63.8 0 50 26.5 72.3
U. of California at Merced 101 52.5 51.9 39.2 1.8 32.1 63.7 88.2
Purdue U. 102 52.4 75.6 29.8 2 38.8 37.3 95.5
Tulane U. 103 52.3 50.6 53.9 3.3 36.2 79.1 80.9
U. of Colorado at Colorado Springs 104 52.1 60.6 72.7 3 50 57.5 60.6
Ohio State U. 105 52 30.5 23 70.7 45.8 74.3 85.8
Kansas State U. 106 51.9 45.7 70.3 0.7 16.6 51.3 94.7
Butler U. 107 51.9 60.3 60.7 0 25 33.3 98.5
U. of Wisconsin at Green Bay 108 51.8 40.4 62.4 1.6 12.5 71.2 72
Stanford U. 109 51.5 55 78.2 4.3 25 16.7 96.9
Idaho State U. 110 51.2 70.9 37.5 0.9 20 34.8 98
Washington State U. 111 50.9 78.8 12.5 0 n/a 35.3 94.2
U. of Virginia 112 50.8 48.3 43.5 4.7 25 76.2 80.6
U. of Washington 113 50.6 46.5 35.6 41.7 50 57.8 74.7
California Maritime Academy 114 50.6 64.1 80 3.6 50 79.3 10
Princeton U. 115 50.4 53.4 18.8 0.9 46.4 87.1 87.1
Fort Lewis College 116 50 38.4 38.4 0 n/a 38.4 100
Wake Forest U. 117 49.9 52.2 64 3.6 50 35.2 88.7
West Virginia U. 118 49.5 30.2 39.4 0 n/a 83.3 97.2
Eastern Oregon U. 119 49 42.1 20.3 0 12.5 93.7 95.3
Georgia Institute of Technology 120 48.7 55.4 15.9 0 50 60.8 100
Bradley U. 121 48.7 50.8 71.4 0 0 51.7 64.2
Bucknell U. 122 48.6 77.1 0 1.2 33.3 38.5 100
American U. 123 48.2 67.4 32.8 1.4 26.3 74.2 97.1
U. of Northern Iowa 124 48 47.2 26 40.9 n/a 69.5 56.5
U. of California at Irvine 125 47.7 45.7 34.6 25.5 45 70.3 62.5
U. of Richmond 126 47 57.3 68.4 1 n/a 8.4 88.4
Syracuse U. 127 46.9 45.4 13.7 23.2 0 64.2 90.3
U. of Wyoming 128 46.9 52.5 87.9 0 n/a 18.7 50
Yale U. 129 46.6 57.5 37.8 6.9 50 85.6 32
Marquette U. 130 46.1 46.5 89.3 0 10 0.6 93.6
Cleveland State U. 131 46.1 43.6 18.9 0 33.3 72.6 97.8
California State U. at Fullerton 132 46.1 31.3 34.4 12.7 30.5 95.8 65.5
U. of Texas at El Paso 133 45.7 17.6 22.2 80 44.6 92.4 66.6
St. John's U. (N.Y.) 134 45.1 59.5 59.9 0 16.6 1.2 93.3
Northwestern U. 135 44.7 39.5 14.8 5.1 41.6 81.8 87.4
Indiana State U. 136 44.6 36.1 25.5 0 20 68.8 93.3
U. of Colorado at Boulder 137 43.7 55.9 65.7 0 33.3 30.9 53.2
George Washington U. 138 42.9 35.6 68.2 18 50 12.5 86.2
Brigham Young U. 139 42.8 25 50 20 n/a 33.3 100
Temple U. 140 42.7 26.2 40.5 34.1 55 54.4 71.2
U. of South Florida 141 42.6 50.6 22 4.4 43.7 33.7 77.9
Clemson U. 142 41.9 73.6 3.3 1.2 27.7 9 89.8
U. of Memphis 143 41.6 12.2 10.4 92.9 50 88.2 2.3
DePaul U. 144 41.5 33.1 79.5 23.1 n/a 14.1 81.3
California State U. at San Marcos 145 39.9 12.2 16.3 0 68.7 96.1 100
Wichita State U. 146 39.5 46.2 57.9 0 12.5 10.2 85.9
U. of Massachusetts at Boston 147 39.4 22.6 16 37.5 62.5 60 74.6
U. of Southern California 148 37.6 39.9 26.8 9 35 32.1 75.1
Eastern Washington U. 149 37 36.2 8.4 0.5 n/a 69.1 81.3
U. of Pennsylvania 150 36.5 9.3 9.3 0.5 12.5 96 95
Colgate U. 151 36.5 0 0 0 n/a 87.5 100
Seton Hall U. 152 36.4 30.7 43 0 49.4 64 14.6
Villanova U. 153 36.3 36.9 22.6 48.1 16.6 40.4 47.6
Baylor U. 154 34.3 40.8 54.7 1.3 n/a 33.1 18.9
Rice U. 155 32.8 29.2 32.9 0 50 20.7 80.4
Harvard U. 156 32.8 22.9 17.3 6.3 50 24.1 97.3
Valparaiso U. 157 32.6 18.3 36.6 0 n/a 23.9 98.5
Texas Christian U. 158 30.2 22 44 2.7 12.5 38.9 44
U. of Alabama at Birmingham 159 29.1 33.3 9.5 35.4 n/a 55.5 7.9
East Carolina U. 160 28.5 35.4 41.2 0 38 24.1 29.6
U. of Southern Mississippi 161 28 15.5 25.8 7.8 20 52.6 50.5
Southern Oregon U. 162 27.4 15.8 13.3 0 12.5 28.3 95
U. of North Carolina at Charlotte 163 27.1 24.2 19.5 34.3 37.5 28.9 32.5
California State U.-Stanislaus 164 27 7.3 1.1 66.6 n/a 85.3 31.4
Marshall U. 165 26.9 23.7 16.2 53.9 7.1 5 47.5
U. of California at Santa Cruz 166 26.6 9.8 10.4 1.2 45.8 62.7 43
Oklahoma State U. 167 25.5 2.3 1.5 35.9 50 70.7 7.6
Lafayette College 168 24.7 27.7 24.4 10.5 0 28.8 31.1
U. of California at Santa Barbara 169 24.6 11.9 23.8 0.9 n/a 71.5 26.6
Georgetown U. 170 24.3 13.4 19.2 7.5 50 64.3 20
Southern Methodist U. 171 21 5.8 3.6 3.8 n/a 12.4 94.1
Montana State U. 172 20.8 24.6 19.1 1.2 25 48.7 0
U.S. Military Academy 173 20.2 23.6 43.2 0 25 4 6.7
La Salle U. 174 19.3 0.4 0.8 0 n/a 57.7 68
U. of Cincinnati 175 18.9 16.8 10.9 1.3 41.6 25.2 33.6
Providence College 176 18.4 3.3 2.6 4 n/a 92 5.3
Great Basin College 177 15.2 2.8 5.7 0 12.5 80 0
U.S. Naval Academy 178 11.1 3.5 4.7 0 n/a 35.7 14.2
Wright State U. 179 11 11.4 18.9 0 0 15.6 7.8
Weber State U. 180 6.2 6.2 7.4 27.7 41.6 5.5 0
Youngstown State U. 181 3.7 1.8 3.6 0 n/a 8.5 6
Fordham U. 182 3.3 7 4 0 21.4 0 0
U.S. Air Force Academy 183 0 0 0 0 n/a 0 0

1. The average of all six categories studied.
2. The Web site must have text where a browser's text reader will pick it up. The same must be true for all Web pages on the site.
3. All additional headings on a page must contain text, and font sizes need to be ordered largest to smallest, consecutively.
4. All elements of online applications need to be properly labeled so that text readers will find them. Such elements include: password boxes, radio buttons, file buttons, check boxes, "select" buttons, "submit" buttons, and "reset" buttons.
5. If you use a table to display information, include proper tags in the cells: "th" tags to indicate categories and "td" tags to indicate data.
6. If there is a picture included anywhere on the Web site, there should be text, coded for text readers, describing the picture.
7. Tables should be used only for organizing data in rows and columns. If you are designing a Web site, use a cascading style sheet instead of a table.