Artificial-Blood Study Has Critics Seeing Red

In a dozen or so scientific studies, people have been serving as medical guinea pigs unwittingly, without giving their consent to participate. Most of those cases have provoked little public outrage. But one study of a blood substitute has raised the ire of politicians and health specialists alike.

In March the chairman of the U.S. Senate Committee on Finance rebuked the Food and Drug Administration for approving the study.

"I am personally troubled," wrote Charles E. Grassley,