Are University Systems a Good Idea?

Life was simple before World War II. After that, we had systems.

 — Rear Admiral Grace Murray Hopper

Physicians and biologists speak of "systems biology" and engineers of "systems engineering." The idea is integration. If you manipulate a patient's potassium level, you had better worry about the impact on other organs and bodily functions. If you want a more powerful heater in your car, you should think about the whole electrical